The life cycle of a technical system is a sequence of stages of existence of objects of artificial origin from the beginning of their creation till the moment of extinction. At each stage, the object has a relatively stable set of characteristics. Different classes of technical systems can have several varies set of stages of life
The most typical part of life cycle stages:
- Definition of functions and consumer qualities of technical system that corresponds to preparation of technical specification.
- Choice of functional structure, principle of action and technical solution that corresponds to the development of technical proposal or (and) technical project.
Working design related to calculation and optimization
- Parameters of the technical system, selection and development of manufacturing technology, preparation of design documentation.
- Production, control and testing of the technical system.
- Transportation and storage of technical system.
- operation, fault diagnosis and repair of technical system.
- Disposal of the technical system as a result of its physical or moral aging.
The life cycle of information systems is the period of their creation and use, covering different states from the moment of necessity in such system and to the moment of its complete exit from users.
The life cycle of information systems includes four stages: pre-design, projecting, implementation, functioning. Efficiency of functioning of the system depends on quality of design works, therefore each stage is divided into a number of stages and provides preparation of the documentation reflecting results of works.
The following stages can be identified at the pre-project stage:
- Collection of materials for design-provides development and choice of the system concept, identification of all characteristics of the object and management activities, flows of internal and external information links, the composition of tasks and specialists, That will work in the new technological environment, the level of their training as future users of the system.
- Analysis of materials and formation of documentation-preparation of the task for the design, approval of the feasibility study.
In order to successfully create a management information system, the ways of passing information flows both within the enterprise and in the external environment are thoroughly studied.
The design phase is divided into:
Technical design stage-design solutions for providing and functional parts of the information system are being developed; industrial, economic, financial situations are simulated; The problem statement and the flowchart and their solution are performed.
Stage of working design-development and refinement of the system, adjustment of the structure, creation of various documentation: on delivery, on installation of technical means, operating instructions, job instructions.
The implementation phase of the information system involves:
- Preparation for commissioning – at this stage the equipment installation, system configuration, personnel training, trial use are performed.
- Testing of all components of the system before starting.
- Industrial operation, which is executed by the act of delivery and acceptance of works.
At the stage of operation of the information system in the working mode, the correction of functions and control parameters is not excluded. Operational maintenance and administration are also provided.
Creation of an information management system of the organization is rather complex and laborious process. The most typical and simple form of company change is automation. A deeper form of organizational change that has evolved from automation is the streamlining of procedures. A major change in the company is the reengineering of business processes. Its essence is to analyze, simplify and modernize business processes. New information systems can fundamentally change the structure of the entire organization, changing the way the company operates or even the direction of its activities. Such a more radical form of change in the company’s activity is called paradigm shift. Changing the paradigm involves reconsidering the nature of the company’s activities rather than individual procedures and processes.
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